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The Environmental Awareness Group of Antigua & Barbuda

Raising awareness & promoting sustainable use of natural resources

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Law & Policy

Environmental Law

Environmental law in Antigua & Barbuda is piecemeal, as there are a number of different acts that relate to the sustainable use of certain natural resources. These include the Forestry Act (1941), the Beach Protection Act (1957), the Plant Protection Act (2012), the Fisheries Act (2006) and Fisheries Regulations (2013).

These acts focus on managing people’s use of the resource, such as sand, trees or fish, but rarely does the legislation address external factors. For example, the Fisheries Act manages fish stock, but does not address problems that lead to lower fisheries productivity, such as marine pollution or destruction of mangroves and other nursery habitat.

The Environment Division in the Ministry of Health and the Environment in Antigua & Barbuda has been working on comprehensive environmental legislation since 2007. In the seven years of developing the Act, the Division has consulted government departments and civil society, including the EAG, for input. The result is a bill, the Environmental Protection and Management Act of 2014, which is ready to go before the Cabinet.

Environmental Policy

An important policy document for Antigua and Barbuda is the Sustainable Island Resource Zoning Management Plan, approved by Cabinet in 2012. This policy document draws on, for the first time, spatial geographic information systems (GIS) along with extensive consultations to map out a forward-thinking development plan for the twin island state. The SIRMZP designates different categories of land and marine resource use with associated activities, guidelines, and regulations.

Here is the key output map of the zoning plan. More SIRMZP maps are available on the Environment Division’s website (

Land use allocation recommended in the SIRMZP.

Environmental Conventions

Antigua and Barbuda has participated in many international environmental conventions and agreements. Here is a list of key conventions and Antigua and Barbuda’s ratification status.

Title of Convention

Data and Status of Ratification

Cartagena Convention

September 11th 1986

Protocol Concerning Oil Spill (Oil Spill Protocol to the Cartagena Convention)

September 11th 1986

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS)

February 2nd 1989

Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol to the Cartagena Convention)

Signatory on January 18th 1990, Not yet ratified

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

June 4th 1992

United Nations Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous waste and their disposal (Basel Convention)

May 4th 1993

UN Convention on Biological Diversity

Ratified on March 9th 1993

UN Convention to Combat Desertification In Those Countries Experiencing Serious Droughts and/or Desertification Particularly Africa

Ratified on June 6th 1997

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITIES)

October 6th 1997

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

Signatory on May 24th 2000

The United Nations Convention on Wetlands (RAMSAR Convention)

October 2nd 2005

Convention on Migratory Species (CMS)

01st October 2007

Nagoya protocol on access to genetic resources and the sharing of their benefits

Not yet Ratified

Protocol Concerning Pollution From Land Based Sources And Activities in the Wider Caribbean Region (LBS Protocol to the Cartagena Convention)

Ratified on July 13th 2010

Click here - Five reasons to support the Environmental Protection and Management Bill